Ростовский кремль, государственный музей-заповедник

Ростовский кремльЦентральная достопримечательность Ростова Великого – Ростовский кремль. Своим появлением кремль всецело обязан воле и энтузиазму митрополита Ионы III Сысоевича, занимавшего ростовскую кафедру с 1652 по 1690 год.

Ростовский кремль, несмотря на внешнюю неприступность своих стен, никогда не был крепостью – он изначально строился как резиденция митрополита и не должен был выполнять оборонительных функций. К счастью, последние военные действия, происходившие в Ростове, относятся к периоду Смутного времени, закончившегося задолго до появления кремля, а потому стенам кремля не довелось играть никакой другой роли, кроме декоративной.

Большая часть сооружений Ростовского кремля была возведена во второй половине XVII века, но его центральное строение – Успенский собор – значительно старше. По преданию, первый здание собора было возведено на этом месте в 991 году – в год крещения Ростова. Оно неоднократно перестраивалось; то здание Успенского собора, которое мы можем видеть сегодня, датируется 1508 – 1512 годами.

Ростовский кремльУспенский собор, который до переезда митрополита в Ярославль, был главным храмом епархии, стал местом упокоения многих именитых жителей Ростова Великого. В их числе убитый монголами князь Василько, племянник Сергия Радонежского архиепископ Феодор, митрополит Иона Сысоевич.

Территория Ростовского кремля состоит из трех основных частей – центральной части, расположившейся на месте древнего епископского двора, и прилегающих к ней с севера – Соборной площади с Успенским собором и звонницей и с юга – митрополичьего сада.

С 1787 года, после перевода митрополичьей кафедры из Ростова Великого в губернский Ярославль, кремль, который на протяжении более чем ста лет служил резиденцией митрополита, опустел. Красивейшая достопримечательность древнего Ростова, оставленная без присмотра, со своими церквами и палатами стала разрушаться.

К счастью, совместными усилиями граждан Ростова, великолепный архитектурный комплекс Ростовского кремля был восстановлен. Параллельно с реставрацией кремля, на его территории создавался Музей церковных древностей, открытие которого состоялось осенью 1883 года. Музей существует и сегодня; теперь он занимает всю территорию кремля, имеет статус государственного музея-заповедника, а в его коллекцию входит более 100 тыс единиц хранения.

Теги: достопримечательности Ростова Великого, Ростовский кремль
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